Bunions are an enlargement of the joint at the base of the big toe and are often associated with a deviation of the big toe towards the other toes. They are ore common in females. The causes are generally accepted as being a combination of genetics, biomechanics and tight fitting footwear. The pain that occurs in bunions is either due to the pressure from the footwear on the enlarged joint and/or from arthritic changes that occur in the joint due to the deviation of the big toe.
The conservative treatment of bunions is to get the pressure from the shoe off the painful area. This involves padding and better fitting shoes. If the pain comes from inside the joint, then mobilization exercises are important.
Unfortunately, none of that conservative treatment will get rid of bunions and they will always be present and always be at risk of being painful. The only way to get rid of bunions is with surgery. This means that the enlarged bone needs to be surgically removed and wedges taken from the bones to straighten the toe.